Analyzing the semen quality prior to conducting female fertility tests is convenient, non-invasive and cost effective. In fact clinical motivation for assessing semen quality is that it can identify a possible cause of infertility non-invasively and may aid in the prognosis of the therapeutic options the couple have.

Semen collection through masturbation is the most recommended method.

For a sperm to reach the fertilization site, it must first penetrate and migrate through cervical mucus in sufficient numbers. This is achieved if the sperm are motile, with normal size and shape (morphology) and have more than a minimum number of sperm determined by routine semen analysis.

To significantly improve the chances of high number of quality sperm at the site of fertilization, semen may be processed to concentrate all viable sperm into a volume adequate for intra uterine insemination.

Semen Analysis

Analysis includes the determination of standard parameters such as the sperm concentration, motility and progressive motility. General sperm morphology is routinely assessed. In addition, semen volume, degree of sperm aggulutination, leucocyte (WBC) and liquification time will also be noted.

Specialized tests are performed when standard semen analysis results are acceptable either the partner is found to be “reproductively normal” or if the couple is experiencing unexplained infertility.


  • Semen samples should be collected in sterile container provided by laboratory.
  • Allow the sample to liquefy at RT ,in case liquefaction is very slow liquefy sample mechanically .
  • Sample should be assessed for following parameters
    • Volume
    • Abstinence
    • Liquefaction time
    • Viscosity
    • Colour
    • Odour
    • PH
    • Assesment of concentration motility and morphology

A makler counting chamber is used to assess these charectristics.Examine the counting grid and count the number of motile sperms in 10 squares,if the count appears or initial observation to be less than 2 million/ml or 100 squares should be counted,and motility calculated accrding to formula.

Motillity = no .of motile sperms in no.of squares counted *100
total no.of sperms in same squares

total sperm count in millions/ml is calculated to be the no.of sperms in 10 squares of the grid.

Maklers Chamber Showing Sperms


Progression is assessed on ascale of 0-4 where
0 completely immotile
1 sluggish,no forward movement
2 slow forward movement
3 moderete forward movement
4 rapid linear movement


Normal sperm morphology has been related to fertilizing potential of sperm.Sperm morphology usually assessed from seminal smears that are prepared at the time of semen evaluation and subsequently stained.They may be stained by shorr stained,papanicolaou stain method.

Normal Sperm

Coiled Tail

Folded Tail

Abnormal Sperms

Bull Sperm

Tapered Head

Small Round Head

Pin Head

Amorphous Head

Cytoplasmic Dropletypon

Bent Neck

  • Functional Tests For Sperms -
    • Hypo Osmotic Swelling Test
    • Acrosome Reaction
  • Biochemical Tests -
    • Sperm Fertilizing Capability - Nuclear Chromatin Decondensation Test
    • Fructose Test
  • Other Tests -
    • Antisperm Ab Test
    • Semen Culture